PASK YouTube channel

The PASK YouTube channel has eight playlists:-

  • Alternatively Sized Keyboards in Action
  • PASK Videos
  • Media Stories and vlogs
  • Piano Industry & Teacher Videos
  • Personal Stories and First Try-outs
  • DS Standard Foundation
  • International Stretto Festival – free videos
  • Change of Keys CD – Carol Leone

Contributions to this channel are welcome – they can be excerpts (comparisons of a pianist playing the same excerpt using the conventional and a smaller keyboard are particularly useful where the difference is apparent) or complete performances by professional or amateur pianists of any age on a keyboard with narrower keys. If you have a movie to contribute, please be in contact via:

PASK handouts and other resources

The following PASK handouts are available for download here: 

3D Models: A physical model of the piano keyboard that can be touched and felt can be far more convincing than logical arguments and data sets on a page or screen.  These can be made quite cheaply by anyone with access to a 3D printer. Note the ‘Goliath’ size (7.6 inch octave) is useful to show a large-handed pianist so they can experience what it feels like to have small hands!  Please visit our companion website: TASK (Technicians for Alternatively Sized Keyboards) to read more: You can order a set via Kathy Strauch: email: info@taskpiano

A poster (A0 size) can be downloaded here:

A bibliography is available here:

DS Standard Foundation

In 2018 the Steinbuhler company, the major manufacturer of alternatively sized keyboards, was converted into a non-profit Foundation in the State of Pennsylvania, USA, and has been awarded 501(c)(3) status.

The Mission of the Foundation is to set a standard for alternatively sized keyboards that is recognized globally so that pianists, whether amateurs or professionals, may achieve their full musical potential while avoiding injury and perform with confidence anywhere in the world, knowing that a keyboard bearing the DS logo will be the size with which they are familiar.

A major strategy for the Foundation is to loan DS keyboards to universities or music schools around the world for a period of 12 months, after which the institution has the option of purchase. Hailun HU1P upright pianos are also available for loan. See these testimonials from American universities who own, or have borrowed, DS keyboards for their pianos.

To learn more about how the Foundation may assist educational institutions, pianists and manufacturers around the world, or to donate towards this cause, please visit the website: On Facebook:

Other websites, blogs and recordings

Dr Carol Leone from Dallas, Texas – Chair of Keyboard Studies at SMU Meadows School of the Arts in Dallas, internationally recognized performing artist, teacher, lecturer, and author, and one of the world’s leading researchers and proponents of ergonomic piano keyboards to promote a pianist’s wellness:

Sydney teacher and Suzuki teacher trainer, Erica Booker, has pianos with alternatively sized keyboards in her studio.

Co-inventor of DS keyboards with David Steinbuhler, Canadian pianist Chris Donison:

Canadian pianist and teacher, Linda Gould, was the first customer for a DS5.5®  keyboard:

The website of a Japanese pianist who owns an upright piano with DS5.5® keyboard:

About past attempts to gain support for narrower keyboards in Japan:

Pianist Renata Bittencourt, from Paris, has a website (in French): 

Concert pianist Kathryn Mientka performs regularly on a DS5.5® keyboard in Arizona.

Pianist Tiffany Goff, from Cleveland Ohio, has a blog:

Pianist Josh Lee from California, who purchased a Walter upright piano with DS5.5 keyboard:

Pianist Grace Choi  has written this personal story:- Thoughts for Pianists with Small Hands: A Testimonial by Grace Choi. It is the second blog on this page:

Pianist and teacher Eliana Yi, from Seattle, is a graduate of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, where she benefited from performing on DS keyboards.

From Jess Johnson, Professor of Piano and Piano Pedagogy at the University of Madison-Wisconsin, where there is a DS5.5® keyboard installed.
Also see Jess’s recital at this university in February 2016, including works by Schumann and Schubert:

A group of academics in Germany and Switzerland is continuing with important research of the late Dr Christoph Wagner relating to the hands of pianists and violinists. Three websites describe this work: For further information, contact Professor Ulrike Wohlwender from the University of Music and the Performing Arts in Stuttgart:  See for some of Wagner’s summary statistics. 

Dr Carol Leone’s CD: Change of Keys: One Piano, Three Keyboards, featuring works by Hayden, Beethoven, Chopin, Liszt, Debussy and Bartok, was released in 2016. Her CD won silver medals for outstanding achievement in both the Classical and Solo Instrumental categories in the Global Music Awards 2016.  For four excellent reviews, go to:- and and, and download  the review from the American Record Guide (Jan/Feb 2017) here:
You can order the CD here:-

Recent and useful publications

Chi, J-Y., Halaki, M., Booker, E., Boyle, R. & Ackermann, B.J. (2021). Interaction between Hand Span and Different Sizes of Keyboards on EMG Activity in Pianists: An Observational Study. Applied Ergonomics, 97, November.

Perez, Caroline Criado. (2019). Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. Penguin, London. (pp 157-159.)

Son, Y.J. (2018). Assessing Perception and Attitude of Pianists toward Ergonomically Scaled Piano Keyboards (ESPK): Raising Awareness about ESPK and Evaluating Changes of Attitude through an Educational Survey. DMA dissertation, University of North Texas.

Coates, S. (2017). Goldilocks and the Three Pianos – Ergonomics in Pianists. The Piano Teacher, November, Hal Leonard Australia. Copy here:

Deahl, L. & Wristen, B. (2017). Adaptive Strategies for Small-Handed Pianists, Oxford University Press.

Leone, C. (2017). Personal Touch. International Piano, UK, January-February 2017.

Boyle, R., Boyle, R. & Booker, E. (2017). Narrower Keyboards for Larger Hands. Readers’ Letters, Pianist. UK, January. Copy here:

Leone, C. (2015). Ergonomic Keyboards: Size does Matter.  Piano Professional,  EPTA (UK), Summer.

Leone, C. (2015). Size is Key. Clavier Companion, Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, USA , September/October. You will also find a copy of the editorial here:

Boyle, R., Boyle, R. & Booker, E. (2015). Pianist Hand Spans: Gender and Ethnic Differences and Implications for Piano Playing, Proceedings of the 12th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, Beyond the Black and White, Melbourne, July 2015. (

Hand span data analysis – Statistics Summary, 2015.

Boyle, R. (2012). The experience of playing reduced-size piano keyboards. A survey of pianists. MTNA e-Journal, April.  

McLachlan, M. (2010), Editorial, Piano Professional, EPTA (UK), Spring.

Boyle, R & Boyle, R. (2010). Hand size and the piano keyboard. An introduction to the technical and musical benefits for pianists using reduced-size keyboards. Piano Professional, EPTA (UK), Spring, 18-23.

For technical articles about piano design, go to the page:

Getting involved

Here are some of the ways that you can be actively engaged. Much of the information needed is on this website and other websites, for example:

1.      Spread awareness of the benefits of piano keyboards with narrower keys and the problems with the current ‘one-size-fits-all’ large keyboard by:-

  • Writing articles for journals, classical music and mainstream media
  • Giving presentations to piano teachers, academics and performing arts health professionals at conferences and seminars
  • Actively using blogs and social media
  • Keeping abreast of the latest research and sharing this informing with others
  • If you are a piano teacher acquiring a keyboard with narrower keys, encouraging parents/students to follow suit.

2.      Help expand availability of alternatively sized keyboards so that pianists can experience narrower keys by:-

  • Lobbying piano manufacturers and retailers, universities, schools and organisers of piano competitions
  • Setting up new piano competitions or encouraging existing ones to provide keyboard choice, and ensuring these competitions are well publicized
  • Assisting universities and schools raise funds to provide these keyboards for students and for research – for example, running a fund-raising ‘marathon’ concert involving all piano students at the school or university!
  • Encouraging and helping organize public recitals featuring alternatively sized keyboards
  • Identifying potential sponsors or sources of funds for, and worthy recipients (including universities, schools, concert venues) of ESPKs. Please be in touch via the email below if you are keen to donate (or know of other potential sponsors) and would like help in identifying recipients who are committed to change.
  • Identifying potential sponsors to increase prize money at competitions that provide keyboard choice. 
  • Investing in new projects relating to the manufacture of alternatively sized keyboards. Please be in touch by email and we will direct you to projects that may need funding.

3.      Help break down barriers and resistance to change by:-

  • Working to change discriminatory examination policies
  • Encouraging well-known pianists, teachers and academics to become ‘champions’ of the cause
  • Actively countering unhelpful attitudes and misconceptions through use of the media, talks to piano teachers, etc.

Please email if you would like to be directly involved or receive email updates from time to time.

If you are on Facebook, this is the PASK site:

You may wish to join the closed group on Facebook:

You can also show your support for the DS Standard Foundation Facebook page:

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