References and links

Boyle, R., & Boyle, R. (2009) Hand size and the piano keyboard. Literature review and a survey of the technical and musical benefits for pianists using reduced-size keyboards in North America. Proceedings of the 9th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference: Expanding Musical Thinking. Sydney, Australia.

Boyle, R & Boyle, R. (2010). Hand size and the piano keyboard. An introduction to the technical and musical benefits for pianists using reduced-size keyboards. Piano Professional, EPTA (UK), Spring, 18-23. 

Boyle, R & Boyle, R. (2010). Hand size and the piano keyboard. Technical and musical benefits for pianists using reduced size keyboards. Journal of the Victorian Music Teachers’ Association, 36 (1), 17-35. 

Booker, E., & Boyle, R. (2011). Piano keyboards – one size does not fit all! Pianistic health for the next generation. Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference: Leading Notes to Effective Teaching: Resolving the past – Exploring the future. Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, 4-8 July 2011.

Boyle, R. (2013). The benefits of reduced-size keyboards for smaller-handed pianists: An exploration of biomechanical and physiological factors. Proceedings of the 11th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference:Opening Doors: The Complete Musician in a Digital Age. University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 2-6 July 2013. Copy here:

Boyle, R., Boyle, R. & Booker, E. (2015). Pianist Hand Spans: Gender and Ethnic Differences and Implications for Piano Playing, Proceedings of the 12th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, Beyond the Black and White, Melbourne, July 2015.  Copy here:

Donelson, S.M. & Gordon, C.C. (1996). 1995 Matched Anthropometric Database of US Marine Corps Personnel: Summary Statistics. 

Driscoll, T. & Ackermann, B. (2012). Applied musculoskeletal assessment: Results from a standardised physical assessment in a national population of professional orchestral musicians. Rheumatology: Current Research, vol. S2, 1-7.

Farias, J., Ordonez, F.J., Rosety-Rodriguez, M., Carrasco, C., Ribelles, A., Rosety, M., Rosety, J.M., & Gomez del Valle, M. (2002). Anthropometrical analysis of the hand as a Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) predictive method in pianists. Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, 107 (4), 225-231.

Garrett, J.W. (1968). Clearance and Performance Values for the Bare-Handed and the Pressure-Gloved Operator. Report No. AMRL-TR-68-24, Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, Wright-Patterson, AFB, Ohio, USA.

Garrett, J.W. (1971). The adult human hand: some anthropometric and biomechanical considerations. Human Factors, 13, 117-131.

Greiner, T.M. (1991). Hand Anthropometry of US Army Personnel. Technical Report. TR-92/011.

Leone, C. (2003). Goldilocks had a choice. American Music Teacher, June-July, 26-29.

Leone, C.  (2015). Ergonomic Keyboards:Size does Matter.  Piano Professional,  EPTA (UK), Summer.

Leone, C. (2015). Size is Key. Clavier Companion, Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, USA , September/October.

Mandahawi, N., Imrhan, S., Al-Shobaki, S., Sarder, B. (2008), Hand anthropometry survey for the Jordanian population. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 38, 966-976.

Matzdorff, I. (1968). Anthropometrische probleme in der industrie. Internationale Zeitschrift für Angewandté Physiologie, Einschliesslich Arbeitsphysiologie, 25, 151-161.

Motmans, R. (2005). DINBelg, Ergonomie RC.

Nag, A., Nag, P.K., & Desai, H. (2003). Hand anthropometry of Indian women. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 117,260-269.

Saengchaiya, N.& Bunterngchit, Y. (2004), Hand anthropometry of Thai female industrial workers. The Journal of KMITNB, 14 (1), 16-19. 

Wagner, Ch. (1984). Success and failure in musical performance: Biomechanics of the hand. In Roehmann F.L., & Wilson F.R. (Eds):  The Biology of Music Making, Proceedings of the 1984 Denver Conference, St Louis, Missouri, MMB Music Inc.,1988, 154-179.

Wagner, Ch. (1988). The pianist’s hand: anthropometry and biomechanics. Ergonomics 31, 97-131.

Wagner, Ch. (2012). Musicians’ hand problems: looking at individuality. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 27(2), 57-64.

Yoshimura, E. & Chesky, K. (2009). The application of an ergonomically modified keyboard to reduce piano-related pain. MTNA e-Journal, November. 

A group of academics in Germany and Switzerland is continuing with important research of the late Dr Christoph Wagner relating to the hands of pianists and violinists. Three websites describe this work:; and For further information, contact Professor Ulrike Wohlwender from the University of Music and the Performing Arts in Stuttgart: 

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